Gerund, Infinitive and Participle
Gerund is usually used to describe actions which are real ,constant and completed in sense.
How to identify Gerund?
When verb + ing acts as a noun, it is a gerund. Gerund can be used in many ways-
Subject of the sentence
Reading is a good habit.
If we ask what is a good habit. We get ‘Reading’ as an answer. Here Reading is the subject of the sentence.
Object of transitive verb
I like reading.
If we ask what do we like, we get ‘reading’ as an answer. Here reading is the object of the transitive verb.
Complement of the subject
What I like is improving myself.
Here ‘improving’ adds more information about the subject. So gerund acts as a complement of the subject ‘I’.
Object of preposition
I am busy in solving sums.
After learning for an hour, he went to watch T.V.
Here gerund is placed after a preposition ,and gerund works as an object of preposition.
Object of a possessive
I hate his torturing her.
Here gerund works as an object of a possessive.
When ‘Being’ or ‘Having’ do not follow ‘be verb’ and it is used before a noun, it becomes gerund. Again, when ‘Being’ or ‘Having’ is used before the past participle form of verb, it becomes participle.
There is a slight difference between ‘being’ and ‘Having’. ‘Being’ tells about a state , but ‘having’ tells about your possession.
Being a salesman is not easy.
Having a pen I could write.
When ‘verb+ ing’ or ‘verb+ ed/en’ works as an adjective, it is called participle. Participle can replace adjective clause or adverb clause.
There are three types of participle-
Past Participle: Verb+ ed/en
Present Participle: Verb+ ing
Perfect Participle: Having +third form of Verb/Having +been+ third form of Verb/Being +third form of Verb
Infinitive describes unreal actions or an action which is about to happen in the future.
Let’s know about infinitives-
I want to play now.
Here We use the verb ‘play’ after ‘to’, so it is infinitive and works as an infinitive .